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                      GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Health  Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (World Health Organisation 1948)
Health care – Health care (or healthcare) is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings (Wikipedia)
Health literacy – Health literacy is the cognitive and social skills which determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways to promote and maintain good health (World Health Organization).
Health promotion – Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behaviour towards a wide range of social and environmental interventions (World Health Organisation)
Health system – A health system (health care system or healthcare system) is the organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations (Wikipedia)
Lifestyle – Lifestyle may be simply defined as ‘the way in which a person lives.’ A more elaborate definition adds details to this: Lifestyle is ‘the habits, attitudes, tastes, moral standards, economic level, etc., that together constitute the mode of living of an individual or group.’ On its own the term is neutral and needs to be qualified e.g. a healthy lifestyle or an unhealthy lifestyle. Lifestyle is a term with broader usage than just health.
Physical activity — Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure. Regular moderate intensity physical activity – such as walking, cycling, or participating in sports – has significant benefits for health. For instance, it can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and depression. Moreover adequate levels of physical activity will decrease the risk of a hip or vertebral fracture and help control weight.
Public Health – Public health refers to all organized measures (whether public or private) to prevent disease, promote health, and prolong life among the population as a whole. Its activities aim to provide conditions in which people can be healthy and focus on entire populations, not on individual patients or diseases. Thus, public health is concerned with the total system and not only the eradication of a particular disease (World Health Organisation).
Self-awareness in health – Self-awareness is the ability to have a clear understanding of one’s own situation, strengths, weaknesses, thoughts and beliefs in health.
Self-care – Self-Care is what people do for themselves to establish and maintain health, and to prevent and deal with illness. It is a broad concept encompassing hygiene (general and personal), nutrition (type and quality of food eaten), lifestyle (sporting activities, leisure etc), environmental factors (living conditions, social habits, etc.) socio-economic factors (income level, cultural beliefs, etc.) and self-medication (World Health Organisation 1998).
Self-management – Self-management is a term that covers a whole range of things people can do to help themselves live with a long-term health condition. On average, people living with a health condition spend just 3 hours per year with their health care team; the rest of the time they are managing day to day life with that condition by themselves – or self- managing (Self management UK). Self-management is therefore self-care by people with a significant existing ailment.
Self-medication – Self-medication is the practice whereby individuals treat their ailments and conditions with medicines which are approved and available without prescription, and which are safe and effective when used as directed (World Health Organisation 1998).
Wellness – Wellness may be defined as ‘the quality or state of being healthy.’ This term has the advantage that unlike ‘lifestyle’ it is only applied to health. It has the disadvantage that it is commonly used to describe an end state or condition, rather than an ongoing activity. An example of usage is: ‘a healthy lifestyle leads to wellness.’ More recent definitions of wellness have sought to expand the definition, for example: ‘wellness is the quality or state of being in good health especially as an actively sought goal.’ The term wellness is particularly used in the USA.
Wellbeing – Wellbeing is often simply defined as feeling good and functioning well.   This includes having a fair share of material resources, influence and control, a sense of meaning, belonging and connection with people and place and the capability to manage problems and change. There is much evidence to show that the skills and attributes associated with wellbeing are a core asset, protecting and enhancing the lives of individuals and communities. Improving your wellbeing not only leads to the prevention of disease, but can lead to outcomes that include better physical health, healthier lifestyles, higher educational attainment, greater productivity, employment and earnings and improved quality of life. (Friedli, Lynn. ‘Mental health, resilience and inequalities.’ World Health Organization 2009)

词汇表
健康(Health)——身体、精神及社会生活中的完美状态,而不仅仅指身体没有疾病或不虚弱。(世界卫生组织1948)
医疗保健——对人体疾病、不适、受伤和其他身体以及精神上的创伤等的诊断、治疗和预防。(维基百科)
健康素养——代表人的认知和社会技能,这些技能决定了个体具有动机和能力去获取、理解和利用健康信息,并能够通过这些途径促进和维护健康。(世界卫生组织)
健康促进——使人们能够强化其掌控并增进自身健康的过程。它不仅仅关注个人行为,更关注社会和环境的干涉作用。(世界卫生组织)
医疗系统——医疗系统(或医疗体制)指整合人力、机构和医疗资源为满足目标人群的需求而提供医疗服务的一种体制。(维基百科)
生活方式——可以简单的定义为一个人生活的方式。还有一个增添了很多细节的复杂定义:生活方式是指习惯、态度、品味、道德水平和经济水平等,这些共同构成了一个人或团体的生活方式。该词本身是一个中立的词汇,其范围需要加以限定,如一种健康的生活方式或不健康的生活方式。“生活方式”比“健康”使用更广泛的词汇。
身体活动——任何由骨骼肌带动的、需要消耗能量的身体运动。中等强度的身体运动,例如散步、骑自行车或参加活动等都对身体有益。举例来说,运动能减少心血管疾病、糖尿病、结肠癌、乳腺癌和患抑郁的风险。此外,适当的身体活动能减少髋关节或椎骨骨折的风险,还能控制体重。
公共医疗——所有有组织性的(无论公共或个人)为预防人类疾病、促进人类健康和延长人类寿命的措施。其活动旨在为整个人类健康而非单一病患或某一疾病提供医疗条件。因此,公共医疗关注的是整个体统而非某种特定疾病的体系。(世界卫生组织)
健康自我意识——清晰了解自身身体状况、优势、劣势、想法和信仰的能力。
自我保健——人们为了维护健康并且预防和应对疾病的一种行为。这是一个广义的概念,它包括卫生(大众和个人),营养(类型和所食用食品的质量),生活方式(运动、休闲等),环境因素(生活条件、社会习惯等),社会经济因素(收入水平,文化信仰等)和自我药疗。(世界卫生组织1998)
自我管理——涵盖了所有人们为了维持长期健康状态而做的所有努力。平均来看,保持身体健康的人群每年仅花3小时在医疗团队上,其余时间他们每天都自行管理健康状态或称自我管理。因此,自我管理也可看成是身患重大疾病人群的一种自我保健行为。
自我药疗——自我选择和使用非处方药来处理自我认识的症状和疾病,且按服用指示安全、高效进行的行为。
健康(Wellness)——应被定义为“一种健康的状态”。该词汇有一个优点就是不像“生活方式”一词只能描述健康。但其也有一个弊端就是通常被用来描述一种状态的结束,而非状态的进行。举一个实用范例,“一个健康的生活方式引领健康”。最新的一些健康定义都力求扩大描述范围,如:“健康是一种良好的状态,是一种追求并达到目标时的良好体验”。健康(wellness)一词通常在美国使用居多。

健康(Wellbeing)——通常被简单定义为感觉良好和行动良好。它包括物质资源、影响力和控制力的公平分配,与他人、地方有共同的认识、归属感和联系,以及应对问题和变化的能力。有很多证据表明,与幸福相关技能和特性属于核心资产,能够保护和巩固个人和社会的安定生活。改善你的健康不仅仅能让你抵御疾病、还能带来诸多益处,包括身体状态更健康、生活方式更健康、教育水平更高、生产力水平更高、就业更多、收入更好和生活质量更佳等。(《精神健康,适应能力和不平等》,作者:Friedli, Lynn,世界卫生组织2009)

 


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