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   SELF-CARE – THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
Fundamentally, self-care is a relatively new and unfamiliar concept, and there is a strong opportunity and need to ‘systematise’ it:

There are of course many excellent initiatives, programmes and policies that seek to address some aspect of lifestyle diseases – quit smoking programmes, or exercise programmes, for example. The ISF believes that such ‘vertical’ approaches are vital but that they could be further enhanced by setting them in a more holistic, ‘horizontal’ framework of self-care. Fundamentally this is how individuals should approach self-care – as a set of inter-linked activities. The risk factors for lifestyle diseases are themselves broad and interconnected – physical inactivity, obesity, tobacco use, unhealthy diets and the harmful use of alcohol in particular. The preferred approach is similarly broad-based and linked – for example, eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, avoiding obesity, exercising, drinking lightly and not smoking. Addressing these linked risk factors collectively results in multiple conditions being targeted simultaneously – heart attack, stroke, diabetes, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and Alzheimer’s disease, for example.

Another important reason for a broad approach is that there are many different entry points into self-care, and one healthy behaviour can lead on to others. For example the smoker who manages to quit smoking is more likely to start exercising. Brushing and flossing teeth regularly will reduce the most widespread chronic disease of all – periodontal (gum) disease, but people should know that this can also slow the progression of atherosclerosis, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Older people aiming to maintain mental acuity through crossword puzzles will learn that exercise can reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s by 60%. People may start anywhere in self-care, and engagement in one area can lead to interest in other areas, drawing people in to healthier lifestyles overall.

自我保健——系统化的方法
从根本上说,自我保健是一种相对较新且陌生的概念,而且将其系统化的空间和需求都很大。
当然有很多优秀的倡议活动、计划和政策都致力于解决生活方式疾病,例如戒烟计划或锻炼计划等。国际自我保健基金认为这些“垂直”的方法至关重要,但强化这些方法需要一个更加全面和“水平的”自我保健框架体系。从根本上,这也是个人应该如何将自我保健视为跟自己有内在联系的活动。造成生活方式疾病的风险因素本身很多且相互关联,尤其如缺乏身体锻炼、肥胖、吸烟、饮食不健康和酗酒。首选的方法有比较广泛的基础且相互联系,如多吃水果和蔬菜、避免肥胖、加强锻炼、少喝酒和不吸烟等。在全面解决这些相关关联的风险因素的同时,很多生活方式疾病就可同时被规避了,如心脏病、中风、糖尿病、癌症、慢性呼吸系统疾病和阿兹海默症等。
采用广泛方法的另一个重要原因是自我保健有很多不同的切入点,且一个健康的生活习惯就能让人们触类旁通拥有更多的健康习惯。例如一名吸烟者决定戒烟,那么它很可能会选择加强锻炼。勤刷牙并定期用牙线清洁牙齿能够减少最常见的慢性疾病——牙周炎,但人们应该知道此举还能减缓引发心脏疾病和中风的主要风险因素动脉粥样硬化的发生率。上年纪的人,通常可以通过填字游戏来保持自己的智力敏锐度,经常锻炼可以将患阿兹海默症的风险降低60%。在任何地方,人们都可以开始自我保健,从任何方面开始都能够让你对自我保健的其他方面感兴趣,让人们总体上生活得越来越健康。 

 



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